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RM420 untuk setiap 12 gram

Mazalan Mohamed dari Gua Musang menjual minyak gaharu pada harga RM420 untuk 12 gram di pasaran Dubai dan Bahrain.





TATKALA menaip perkataan 'gaharu' di laman web, bersusun alamat laman web dari Indonesia pada skrin komputer. Masing-masing mempromosikan minyak gaharu atau lebih dikenali sebagai agarwood oil di peringkat dunia.

Minyak yang menghasilkan aroma yang mewangi ini mendapat permintaan yang amat tinggi di Timur Tengah, terutamanya Arab Saudi dan Dubai, berikutan adat masyarakat di sana yang gemarkan wangi-wangian. Ia sama ada dicampur dengan minyak lain untuk menghasilkan minyak wangi atau minyak atar, atau dijual tulen.

Malaysia sebaliknya lebih cenderung untuk mengeksport hasil kayu ini dalam bentuk kepingan kayu karas atau damar gaharu berbanding minyak yang diekstrak.

Malah sehingga tahun 1997, Lembaga Perkayuan Malaysia (MTC) melaporkan bahawa negara ini pernah mengeksport gaharu dalam bentuk kepingan bernilai lebih RM50 juta dalam tempoh lima tahun.

"Saya sudah terlibat dalam perniagaan karas-gaharu ini sejak 18 tahun lalu. Tujuh tahun pertama saya mulakan dengan menjual kepingan kayu karas dan damarnya sahaja, sama ada ke pasaran Thailand ataupun tempatan.

"Tetapi setelah melihat cara kayu-kayu ini diproses serta pulangan yang cukup lumayan daripada penjualan minyaknya, saya memutuskan untuk pergi lebih jauh," ujar Mazalan Mohamed, 40, yang ditemui di kilang memproses minyak gaharunya yang terletak di Kampung Star Baru, Gua Musang, Kelantan.


Mesin pengisar yang didatangkan dari Thailand


Mazalan turut beroperasi tanpa orang tengah, selain mengubah pendekatan perniagaan dengan menjual minyak gaharu berbanding sekadar kepingan kayu karas.

Jika sebelum ini Mazalan hanya memenuhi permintaan Thailand dan tempatan, kini minyak gaharu keluaran PMW Enterprise sudah berada dalam pasaran Dubai, Arab Saudi dan Bahrain.

Menjenguk kilang-kilang pemprosesannya, bahang yang berkuap di dalam dirian sederhana itu tidak sedikit pun melunturkan semangat krew EKSTRA untuk meninjau lanjut.

Kedatangan yang disambut dengan pemandangan dua wanita berusia yang sedang mencincang kepingan kayu karas yang memenuhi ruang lantai menambah lagi keinginan untuk meneroka.

Biarpun bertubuh kurus dan sudah berusia, kedua-dua wanita ini pantas saja melakukan kerja. Sekali-sekala melemparkan senyuman ke arah kami, tangan mereka terus menghentak parang dalam genggaman.

Potongan kayu karas itu kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah mesin pengisar yang berdiri tegap di satu sudut. Kongsi Mazalan, mesin itu berharga tidak kurang daripada RM12,500 sebuah.

"Hasil kisaran kemudiannya diperam di dalam air selama dua minggu. Selepas itu ia akan dikeringkan. Untuk karas gred rendah, kami asingkan untuk dijual bagi membuat colok.

"Hasil daripada karas gred bermutu lebih tinggi akan dimasak di dalam dapur antara lima hingga 10 hari, bergantung kepada gred, untuk mengekstrak minyaknya," jelas anak kelahiran Kampung Chasi, Tok Uban, Pasir Mas, Kelantan ini.

Bahagian pemprosesan yang menggunakan teknologi yang 'diimport' dari Thailand ini memperlihatkan 60 dapur berbaris panjang dengan setiap satunya dilengkapi tong gas sendiri. Kata Mazalan, kos keseluruhan pembinaan dapur ini ialah RM50,000.

"Satu pusingan memasak serbuk kayu karas untuk gred C rendah, yang mengambil masa lima hari, menghabiskan sehingga dua tong gas 16.5 kilogram.

"Tetapi untuk gred C tinggi dan ke atas yang dimasak sehingga 10 hari, empat tong gas yang sama diperlukan," tambah bapa kepada empat orang anak ini.


KOS pembuatan dan pemasangan dapur ini mencecah RM50,000.


Selepas lima hari, minyak gaharu akan terkumpul di dalam tabung suling dan terapung di lapisan atas permukaan air. Ekstrak ini akan 'dikutip' pada setiap lima hari mengikut jadual yang ditetapkan.

Mendirikan tiga buah kilang, dengan sebuah di Bukit Beruntung, Selangor, Mazalan berkata pemprosesan dijalankan 24 jam sehari. Ini kerana jika api dapur dimatikan, proses pemanasan akan menggunakan lebih banyak gas dan memakan masa.

Untuk tujuan eksport, Mazalan menyimpan minyak gaharu yang telah dikumpul ke dalam botol aluminium bermuatan 1.2 liter. Dalam sebulan, dapur itu dapat menghasilkan enam botol aluminium minyak gaharu.

"Minyak ini dijual pada harga RM420 setiap 12 gram, iaitu menyamai satu botol tolal.

"Kami dapat menjual pada harga ini kerana kami dapat menyediakan minyak gaharu yang pekat sebagaimana diminta pembeli," katanya yang menjelaskan, semakin pekat minyak gaharu, semakin tinggi nilainya.

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Aquilaria Crassna Pierre

Taxonomy and Nomenclature
Family: Thymelyaceae
Synonyms: none
Vernacular/common names: agar wood, eagle wood (Eng), bois d’eaigle, bois daloes (France), tram huong, Do bau (Vietnam), kritsanaa (Thailand, Laos). Related species of interest: Aquilaria is represented by a number of species in SE Asia - Pacific. The taxonomic status of some of them is uncertain. Some important species are A beccariana van Tiegham, A. banaensis Pham Hoang Ho, A. subintegra Ding Hou and A. malaccaensis Lam.

Distribution and habitat
Naturally distribution signifi cantly reduced by selective cutting. Mainly occurring south of 19ยบ N in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. In Vietnam widely distributed, from central Vietnam southwards to Phu Quoc island (Kien Giang province). It is light demanding, occurring scattered in natural forest on rocky, shallow ferralitic soil, often along streams. Altitude range mainly 300-900 m.a.s.l. Annual rainfall around 1200 mm.

Uses
The main product is agar wood or eagle wood, which is a deposit of dark brown aromatic resin in the wood. Agar wood is produced in some old trees (at least 15-20 years old), presumable by some stress factors such as mechanical injuries, bacterial or fungal attack. Agar wood is used e.g. in temples as perfume wood. Aquilaria wood can be destilled and then yield an essential oil, which is used in the perfume industry. Both agar wood and Aquilaria oil is very much sought after and the species is disappearing from many of its original growth sites. However, the species is also cultivated, frequently planted around houses and home gardens, and large scale industrial plantations have been initiated in Vietnam.


Botanical description
Large evergreen tree, 15-20 (-30) m, and diameter up to 40-60 (occasionally 100) cm. Bark greyish-brown, slightly fi ssured, easy to peel off, smooth. Inner bark wet with much water. Branches nearly horizontal, not straight. Crown open. Leaves alternate, coreaceous, elliptical, petiole 4-5 mm, blade 8-13 cm long 3.5-5.5 cm wide, upper surface glossy and green, lower surface light coloured. Infl orescence umbellate, axillary or terminal. Flowers small, pale blue-yellow, fragrant, fi ne-haired, pedicel up to 1 cm long, fl oral tube campanulate, 4 mm long.

Open fruit with two seeds.

Fruit and seed description
Fruit: fl attened, dehiscent, obovoid capsules, 3-3.5 cm long, 2.5-3 cm wide with 2 valves, each with 1 seed. Capsule hard or leathery when dry, with short greyish-yellow hairs and persistent calyx. When capsules open on the tree, the seeds hang from a 5-6 cm long prolonged funicle. Seed: glossy black, ovoid, about 5-6 mm diameter, 4 cm long including a 3-3.5 cm long, twisted, tail like pubescent appendage. There are about 4500-5000 seeds per kg. Nearly mature still closed fruits

Flowering and fruiting habit
In southern Vietnam the tree flowers in February and fruits in May-June. In Central Vietnam (Quang Binh) it flowers in March and fruits in July Acquilaria crassna. From: Vietnam Forest Trees
Harvest
Fruits are harvested from the trees when they turn from green to yellow but before the capsules open. Harvest time is crucial because the seeds have very short viability after acquiring maturity.

Processing and handling
Capsules are dried under shade or moderate sun until they open. The seeds are fragile and remain attached to the capsule by the funiculus, and are therefore usually detached by hand. It is recommended to remove the arils before storage as it tends to absorb moisture and cause rotor fungal attack.



Storage and viability
The seeds are oil rich, recalcitrant with very short viability. In a storage experiment seeds the best storage condition was 25% moisture content and 8°C in folded plastic bags. After 1 months storage at these conditions viability declined from 41% to 22 %; the viability was ‘0’ after 2.5 months of storage. The experiment also showed that storage time is significantly prolonged when the seed is stored cold, i.e. at 8°C.

Dormancy and pretreatment
There is no dormancy and pretreatment is not necessary.

Sowing and germination
Germination is epigeal. Because of the recalcitrant nature, sowing should be as soon as possible after collection. Seeds are sown shallow in sand or nursery soil with only the seed part covered, the tail remaining above the soil. Germination starts after 10 days and may be spread over one month.

Phytosanitary problems
Seeds without the arilus removed tend to collect moisture and decompose rapidly.

Vegetative propagation
Root cuttings as well as air layering appear easy provided application of rooting hormones and appropriate microclimate. Also propagated by tissue culture.

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Sunday, January 15, 2012

LANUN GAHARU DI CEKUP

GRIK 2011,

Cubaan tiga lanun hutan untuk melepaskan diri dgn menyogok seorang anggota polis bukan saja tidak berjaya, malah mereka turut diheret ke lokap.

Dalam sekatan jalan raya jam 9 pagi semalam, di KM 9, Jalanraya Timur Barat, berdekatan Hentian Sungai Lebey, mereka ditahan selepas pemeriksaan ke atas kereta dinaiki menemui kayu gaharu seberat 250 kilogram yang dianggarkan bernilai lebih RM50,000.00 . Berita lanjut di web link

http://mobile.hmetro.com.my/myMetro/articles/Lanungaharudicekup/mobile/mArticle

Gaharu Tree (also known as Wood of the Gods)

The Agarwood or Gaharu Tree (also known as Wood of the Gods) produces the raw material for incense, perfumes or fragrant and even alternative medicine.

The scientific name for Gaharu is Aquilaria and is also known as scented wood in the old days.

Usage of Gaharu

The “Wood of the Gods” has been traded and highly appreciated for thousands of years. This resinous wood is used as incense, for medicinal purposes, and pure resin in distilled form is used as perfume and perfume component.

Value of Gaharu

The value of first-grade Agarwood is extremely high. A whole range of qualities and products is on the market varying with geographical location and cultural deposition. Prices range from a few dollars per kilo for the lowest quality to over thirty thousand US dollars for top quality oil and resinous wood.

LATAR BELAKANG POKOK GAHARU

Pokok Gaharu atau dikenali dalam Bahasa Inggris sebagai Agarwood adalah pokok dalam family Thymelaeceae. Pokok yang telah matang akan membesar sehingga 40 meter tinggi dan berdiameter 40cm. Pokok gaharu di hutan semulajadi mula mengeluarkan resin gaharu pada usia 20 hingga 45 tahun, bergantung pada ketahanan pokok dan tindakbalas kecederaan pokok.

Pokok gaharu amat diminati kerana dapat menghasilkan aroma yang wangi dan menyenangkan apabila dibakar kayunya. Mengikut data yang dikeluarkan pada Persidangan Gaharu Dunia pertama di Vietnam terdapat 16 spesis dari genus Aquilaria yang mempunyai nilai komersil yang tinggi.

BERIKUT ADALAH JENIS-JENIS AGRAWOOD MENGIKUT RANKING

1. AQUILARIA SUBINTEGRA, Found at Thailand
2. AQUILARIA CRASSNA, Found at Thailand, Cambodia, Loas, Vietnam
3. AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS, Found at Thailand, India, Indonesia
4. AQUILARIA APICULATA, Found at Philippines
5. AQUILARIA BAILLONIL, Found at Thailand, Combodia, Loas, Vietnam
6. AQUILARIA BANEONSIS, Found at Vietnam
7. AQUILARIA BECCARIAN, Found at Indonesia
8. AQUILARIA BRACHYANTHA, Found at Malaysia
9. AQUILARIA CUMINGIANA, Found at Indonesia, Philippines
10.AQUILARIA FILARIA, Found at Nuegini, China
11.AQUILARIA GRANDIFLORA, Found at China
12.AQUILARIA HILATA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
13.AQUILARIA KHASIANA, Found at India
14.AQUILARIA MICROCAPA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
15.AQUILARIA ROSTRATA, Found at Malaysia
16.AQUILARIA SINENSIS, Found at China

Pokok gaharu hidup di kawasan tanah pamah sehingga ketinggian 750m dari aras laut dan memerlukan taburan hujan dan kelembapan yang tinggi. Gaharu digunakan dalam industri minyak wangi, produk perubatan, perubatan Ayurvedic, majlis keagamaan dan sebagainya.

Permintaan untuk gaharu semakin tinggi walaupun pengeluaran semakin berkurangan menyebabkan harganya semakin meningkat setiap tahun. Kebanyakan gaharu dieksport kepada. pemborong-pemborong di Singapura, Timur Tengah, Hongkong dan Taiwan.

Harganya boleh mencecah sehingga RM14-18 ribu sekilogram untuk gred Double Super. Malahan harga pasaran untuk minyak gaharu juga amat tinggi iaitu RM45 ribu/kg (kaedah penggredan kualiti kayu dan minyak masih belum dipiawaian dan bergantung kepada penjual dan pembeli).

Asia Tenggara mengeksport gaharu bernilai RM48.3 million ke Arab Saudi dan bekalan hanya memenuhi 20% daripada permintaan pasaran.

Buat masa ini, kebanyakkan gaharu dikeluarkan daripada hasil hutan dan amat terhad. Tanpa penanaman semula. spesis ini akan terus diancam kepupusan disebabkan aktiviti pengambilan gaharu.

Penanaman gaharu di Malaysia masih baru dan belum popular, tetapi di negara lain seperti Indonesia, Thailand dan Kemboja sudah lama diusahakan. Malah ia mendapat sokongan yang amat kuat daripada pihak agensi kerajaan mereka dari segi modal dan teknologi.

Keseluruhan pokok gaharu (batang, daun & akar) berguna dan dapat dikomensilkan.

Penanaman pokok gaharu sesuai dijalankan di tanah terbiar, kawasan rezab hutan simpan, kawasan pembalakan yang telah diterokai dan dijalankan secara pertanian hutan ladang dan diintegrasikan dengan pelbagai tanaman lain seperti herba dan tanaman komoditi.

Gaharu Commercial Production

Researchers are looking at various inducement techniques to produce aromatic gaharu on a commercial scale.

The Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (Frim) began researching in the late 1990s following a surge in market demand for gaharu and is still refining its inoculation technique.

Based on anecdotes from Orang Asli collectors, researchers deliberately wound the tree trunk and indeed, gaharu was produced in varying degrees of formation, suggesting that it can be induced in standing Aquilaria trees by artificial means. But the grade obtained was inconsistent.

Over 100 Aquilaria malaccensis saplings were planted on a 1ha trial plot at the institute’s research station at Bukit Hari between 1998 and 2000. Artificial inducement was carried out after three years but the trees did not respond.

FRIM research co-ordinator Dr Chang Yu Shyun suspects that the trees were not mature enough to produce the resin.

"In nature, when a branch or twig is broken, the wound attracts bacteria, fungi and pathogens. In gaharu-producing species like Aquilaria, the tree will produce the resin to contain the infection from spreading, covering the wound and blackening the whitish heartwood. That’s how gaharu is produced.

"The challenge is to come out with high quality or the desired grade and predictable volume to make planting a viable solution to over-harvesting of wild species," says Chang.

The senior research officer in the biotechnology division says the research initially focused on inoculation trials but later expanded to cover the biological aspect, economic value, trade and chemical analysis of the fragrant resin.

Meanwhile, the Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (Mint) has applied nuclear irradiation technology to mass-produce plantlets via tissue culture.

Seeds were screened for fast-growth and single-bole characteristics at the cellular level and lead researcher Dr Rusli Ibrahim claims he has found the secret formula after one year of experimentation.

"With this technique, we can fast-track the growing stage. Many plantation investors will benefit from this advancement."

Five hundred plantlets are growing in a trial plot near Dengkil. Rusli says two other research groups will look for suitable antagonists to induce the tree and the best extraction technique to yield oil of the desired chemical composition.

The hill within the MINT compound was recently discovered to host 157 matured Aquilaria trees. "At the end of the year, we intend to invite two United States experts to demonstrate to the growers the right way of inoculating these trees," says Rusli.

MINT has submitted four funding proposals under the Ninth Malaysian Plan to support the research work which will also include developing a standard grading system for woodchips and oil extracts.

How to inoculate Gaharu for its valuable resin?

How to inoculate Gaharu for its valuable resin?

Inoculation is a method was developed to induce the production of gaharu in young plantation trees. The trees are wounded or inoculated in a specific manner and the gaharu production as the natural defence response is supported by applying specific treatments. This method can ensure the sustainable production of gaharu in plantation trees.


The artificial inoculation process involves creating holes on a karas tree, filling them with fungal pathogen, and sealing them off with wax

Produced only by “sick” trees infected by fungi, this highly sought after fragrant resin has a cohort of uses, from aromatherapy to spa baths, decorative furniture, perfume, chopsticks, weapon holders, massage oil, joss sticks and items of medicinal value.

After four to six years, upon maturing, the trees will be injected with fungal pathogens to trigger gaharu production, and this can be harvested after five months to a year.

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